Genome editing enables one to make precise changes in the DNA of an organism to introduce, remove, or substitute one or more specific nucleotides at a specific site in the organism’s genome.
Techniques include: Clustered regulatory interspersed short palindromic repeat associated nucleases (CRISPR), Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis (ODM). Other breeding technologies include RNA interference (RNAi), Cisgenesis, Intragenesis, grafting, agro-infiltration, RNA-dependent DNA methylation and reverse breeding.
Genetic engineering enables one to add genes to an organism through agrobacterium-mediated transformation, particle bombardment and cloning. These genes can provide traits, such as pest and disease resistance as well as crop improvement and adding nutritional value.
Biotechnology consultations on food derived from genetically engineered plants.
The World Health Organization lists the main issues concerning GE and human health.